Eastern Journal of European Studies

e-ISSN: 2068-6633 | ISSN: 2068-651X

Volume 3  |  Issue 2  |  December 2012

Thematic issue: Migration and regional/local development    


Author: Stephan BRUNOW
Abstract: This issue of the journal considers the various aspects of migration from different views and disciplines. Labor mobility is probably one of the most challenging topics: many push and pull factors influence people's incentives to migrate. Additionally, the decision making process is explained by highly endogenous variables. Very roughly and generally considered from a neoclassical economic point of view, migrants should be better off after their movement, otherwise they would not decide to migrate. But what happens with the others that do not migrate? What is the impact of migration on the countries of origin and destination?

Keywords: European Union, migration, development
Pages: 5-7 | Full text (PDF)

Towards an integrated model of international migration

Author: Douglas S. MASSEY
Abstract: Demographers have yet to develop a suitable integrated model of international migration and consequently have been very poor at forecasting immigration. This paper outlines the basic elements of an integrated model and surveys recent history to suggest the key challenges to model construction. A comprehensive theory must explain the structural forces that create a supply of people prone to migrate internationally, the structural origins of labour demand in receiving countries, the motivations of those who respond to these forces by choosing to migrate internationally, the growth and structure of transnational networks that arise to support international movement, the behaviour states in response to immigrant flows, and the influence of state actions on the behaviour of migrants. Recent history suggests that a good model needs to respect the salience of markets, recognize the circularity of migrant flows, appreciate the power of feedback effects, and be alert unanticipated consequences of policy actions.

: immigration, networks, neoclassical economics, new economics of labour migration, social capital, unintended consequences, policy
Pages: 9-35 | Full text (PDF)

Worker remittances and government behaviour in the receiving countries

Author: Thomas H.W. ZIESEMER
Abstract: We estimate the impact of worker remittances on savings, taxes, and public expenditures on education, all as a share of GDP, for two samples of poor and less poor countries. Remittances increase the savings ratio in both samples. Savings have an (inverted) u-shaped impact on the tax ratio in poor (richer) countries. Higher tax revenues lead to higher public expenditure on education in both samples. When remittances increase, in the richer sample, governments raise less tax revenues but spend more on education in direct response, whereas governments of the poorer sample raise more tax revenues at low levels of remittances, but less at high levels of remittances. In simultaneous equation simulations of a positive permanent shock to remittances, the governments of richer countries reduce taxation and public expenditure on education as a share of GDP. In poor countries, this leads to higher tax revenues and spending of more money on education.
Keywords: remittances, savings, tax revenues, public expenditure on education
Pages: 37-59 | Full text (PDF)

The impact of remittances on consumption and investment in Romania

Authors: Cristian INCALȚARAU, Liviu-George MAHA
Abstract: This article proposes an econometric analysis of the effects of remittances on the Romanian economy in terms of consumption and investment. Unlike the other sociological studies regarding the Romanian migration phenomenon, the present research targets the macroeconomic level, following the extent to which remittances have supported the evolution of consumption and investment. Contrary to our assumptions, the results showed that remittances had a more significant contribution to investment than to consumption. This may be due to the data we have used, which include only the amounts sent through formal channels which are indeed bigger and meant for investment purposes.
Keywords: labour migration, remittances, household consumption, investment, Romania
Pages: 61-86  | Full text (PDF)

Determinants of the remitting behaviour of Romanian emigrants in an economic crisis context

Authors: Zizi GOSCHIN, Monica ROMAN
Abstract: The remittances of international migrants are particularly important for Romania as one of the top European emigration countries and an important remittance recipient country as well. Responding to the need to better understand the determinants of remittances, our paper examines the significance of selected economic, social and demographic factors that impact on the remittance behaviour of Romanian international migrants, as characterized by the propensity to remit and the amount remitted. The present work builds on a new database of 1514 Romanian migrants from 52 destination countries, resulting from our 2010 online survey. One of the main findings is the fact that the remittances are strongly affected by migrant's income, return intention and presence of the spouse in the destination country.
Keywords: international migration, remittances' determinants, Romania
Pages: 87-103 | Full text (PDF)

Migration and multi-dimensional poverty in Moldovan communities

Authors: Melissa SIEGEL, Jennifer WAIDLER 
Abstract: This paper aims to understand the links between migration and poverty at the community level. Most of the research to date on the links between migration and poverty has been conducted at the micro level, while research related to migration and development more broadly usually focuses on the specific micro or the broader macro level. This paper adds to the existing literature by focusing specifically on the community level using data collected in the second half of 2011 in 180 Moldova communities. This paper examines four dimensions of poverty at the community level, namely: 1) infrastructure, 2) education, 3) livelihood and 4) health. We look at different rates of poverty by migration/remittance prevalence and country destination. We find that communities with higher rates of migration are significantly associated with a higher level of deprivation in infrastructure and the multi-dimensional index, while we find no significant results for remittances sent to the community. Community size and average income as well as region and proximity to the capital all show significant results of the different dimensions of well-being.
Keywords: migration, remittances, development, poverty, Moldova, community development, deprivation
Pages: 105-119 | Full text (PDF)

The effects of immigration on the socio-economic landscape of the United Kingdom

Author: Anett HODOSI
Abstract: Former research detected the paradox of high quality formal institutional background accompanied by a low level of social trust in the United Kingdom. The aim of the current paper is to solve this initial puzzle. As traditional social capital literature is not able to explain the low level of trust in this case, we propose a comprehensive approach incorporating the analysis of immigration, integration, inequality and access to justice data to shed light on trust-eliminating mechanisms. The social and economic aspects are examined in the matrix of extra-community network, intra-community trust, radius of trust and need for formal external enforcement. Four factors - concentrated highly diverse areas, tight communities living next to each other with limited extra-community links, minorities' high exposure to deprivation and limited access to justice - are identified as the origin of our puzzle. As social trust plays a fundamental role in enhancing economic growth, the trust-impeding mechanisms explored in the current paper shall be of great importance.
Keywords: social trust, immigration, inequality, integration, deprivation, access to justice
Pages: 121-139 | Full text (PDF)

Stories of upward social mobility and migration in one Romanian commune.  On the emergence of "rurban" spaces in migrant-sending communities

Author: Monica ALEXANDRU
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore how international migration changed rural communities and social mobility trajectories. I show how the intense structural changes following the socio-economic transition in Romania supported the emergence and growth of labour migration. I look at migration instances that reveal positive changes of the quality of life, housing, educational and occupational opportunities of migrants. I posit that migration changes social mobility trajectories and shapes "rurban" villages where standards of living and lifestyles merge old and new ways of life. These communities gradually begin to resemble more to host countries and to urban localities in Romania than to the traditional rural spaces.
Keywords: communism, transition, community development, labor force migration, social mobility, rurbinization, rurban communities
Pages: 141-160 | Full text (PDF)

Attitudes towards immigrants and the integration of ethnically diverse societies

Authors: Tiiu PAAS, Vivika HALAPUU
Abstract: The paper aims to clarify the possible determinants of peoples' attitudes towards immigrants depending on their personal characteristics as well as attitudes towards households' socio-economic stability and a country's institutions relying on the data of the European Social Survey fourth round database. The study intends to provide empirical evidence-based grounds for the development of policy measures to integrate ethnically diverse societies, taking into account the composition of the country's population as well as other country's peculiarities. The results of the empirical analysis are consistent with several theoretical approaches explaining individual and collective determinants of people's attitudes towards immigrants. Ethnic minorities, urban people, people with higher education and income, as well as people who have work experience abroad are, as a rule, more tolerant towards immigrants in Europe. Furthermore, people whose attitudes to socio-economic risks are lower and who evaluate the political and legal systems of a country and its police higher are more tolerant towards immigrants. The respondents' labour market status (employed, unemployed) does not have a statistically significant relationship with their attitudes towards immigrants. In addition to the respondent's personal characteristics and their attitudes, the collective determinants depending on country specific conditions measured by country dummies are valid in explaining people's attitudes towards immigration.
Keywords: attitudes, immigration, tolerance, economic growth, policy implications
Pages: 161-176 | Full text (PDF)


Sarah Spencer, The migration debate

Author: Romana Emilia CRAMARENCO
Pages: 177-179 | Full text (PDF)


Christien van den Anker, Ilse van Liempt (Eds.), Human rights and migration - trafficking for forced labour

Author: Teodor Lucian MOGA
Pages: 181-184 | Full text (PDF)

EJESİ Centre for European Studies - Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iași 2010 |