Eastern Journal of European Studies

e-ISSN: 2068-6633 | ISSN: 2068-651X

Volume 9  |  Issue 1  |  June 2018

How has the level of European governance changed from 2004? Trends and fault lines

Author: Irena VRŇÁKOVÁ
Abstract: This article deals with the current issues of the development of European economic integration in terms of the level of governance in Member States of the European Union. The differences in the level of governance impact the countries' ability to act as a whole and to achieve convergence. This article is devoted to the analysis of governance in the EU. First, the status of governance of Member States was evaluated; then, we examined whether there has been a reduction in the disparity since the 2004 EU enlargement. We have also summarized the existing heterogeneity in EU indicators and the basic data concerning economic, political and social variables as part of the governance. In the second part, the analysis of the results was carried out. The main task of this chapter was to closely examine how homogenous/heterogenous Member States are. Finally, the actual status of the level of governance of the EU was explained in the conclusions.
Keywords: governance, economic integration, European Union
Pages: 5-22 | Full text (PDF)

Gender differences in tourism behaviour in the European Union

Authors: Bogdan-Constantin IBĂNESCU, Oana Mihaela STOLERIU, Alexandra GHEORGHIU
Abstract: Given its increasing role in today's societal and economic realities, tourism is seen more and more as a discursive area and a successful channel for the transmission of gender equality issues. The purpose of this article was to examine the differences between core-members and latest accession states from the European Union regarding gender gaps in tourist behaviour. We used the number of trips, overnight stays, and the values for travel expenditures from Eurostat database, as indicators to study the participation of men and women in tourism for both leisure and professional purposes. The results indicated small or almost inexistent differences between the core-members of the European Union and latest accession states regarding gender gaps in tourism, however both groups manifested an underrepresentation of women in professional or business tourism as well as smaller values of expenditures overall for women. The results seemed to indicate the existence of a 'glass ceiling', despite the overall progress made in gender equality area.
Keywords: tourist behaviour, gender gap, European Union, 'glass ceiling'
Pages: 23-43 | Full text (PDF)

Central European Free Trade Agreement: Did the Initiative Prove its Commitments?

Authors: Rodica CRUDU, Olesea SIRBU, Augustin IGNATOV
Abstract: CEFTA 2006 is an important cooperation platform providing the Western Balkan countries and the Republic of Moldova with the opportunity to share experience and build functional economic relations. It aims to improve the economic development of the states through assuring a favourable environment for trade and investments. Moreover, CEFTA is viewed as a preparatory instrument for the future European integration of the states. It has been 10 years since the formation of CEFTA. Over this period, numerous economists, politicians and researchers debated on whether the initiative proved its commitments and what the impact of CEFTA on regional economic development, and in particular, on regional trade and investments is. Therefore, to reach relevant conclusions about the researched subject, the present paper is focused on quantitative data analysis involving descriptive and econometric methods.
Keywords: CEFTA, trade, investments, the Western Balkans, Moldova
Pages: 45-62 | Full text (PDF)

The dynamics of poverty and its consequences on regional inequalities in Romania

Authors: Marinela ISTRATE, Raluca Ioana HOREA-SERBAN
Abstract: Poverty has arisen growing interest due to its various spatial aspects and implications. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the relationship between poverty and inequality, analyzing the way in which a high degree of social and economic inequality influences the different forms of poverty manifestation. We made use of a three-dimension analysis: actual poverty (as expressed by absolute and relative thresholds), inequality of income distribution and regional distribution of these phenomena. Although poverty has diminished, the feeling of poverty remains strong both in relation to the income of the other co-nationals and to that of the other European countries, Romania continuing to be, unfortunately, one of the poorest countries in EU-28. The investigation carried out revealed the fact that the economic development of the country has been accompanied by a fast decrease in absolute poverty but also by a slight increase in relative poverty.
Keywords: poverty indicators, inequality, dynamics, regional disparities
Pages: 63-86 | Full text (PDF)

Regional socio - economic factors influencing diabetes incidence: the case of Romania

Authors: Elena DRUICĂ, Zizi GOSCHIN, Cristian BĂICUȘ
Abstract: We examine the relation between average net wage, urbanization rate, women density, life expectancy, medical infrastructure and medical human resources, and the incidence of total, insulin, and non - insulin diabetes among Romanians. We fitted three panel regression models with interaction terms using official data comprising of 41 Romanian counties analyzed between 2007 and 2014. After controlling for age groups, we found that the share of women in the overall population moderates the influence of salary level on diabetes incidence for the total and non - insulin groups, while for the insulin - dependent category, urbanization rate was positively associated with the number of newly recorded patients. Health infrastructure was relevant only for the total, and the insulin - dependent categories. Our results are in line with the sizeable disparities in diabetes that exist within other European countries and are useful for regional decision-makers planning adequate healthcare services and target proper risk groups.
Keywords: diabetes, regional studies, Romania, healthcare, panel data models
Pages: 87-109 | Full text (PDF)

Determinants of earnings in Macedonia: Assessing the difference between low-paid and highly-paid employees

Authors: Dimitar NIKOLOSKI, Marjan ANGELESKI, Slavica ROCHESKA
Abstract: The problem of 'low-pay' as a relatively new social phenomenon in Europe has received considerable attention over the past 20 years. The analysis of the low-pay in low income countries, where the average earning is already low by international standards is more complex and represents a challenging task. The stylised facts show that earnings are not uniform across the population, but they vary according to a number of socio-economic and demographic characteristics. The aim of this paper is to assess the earning function of employed workers in Macedonia by paying attention to the difference between low-paid and highly-paid employees. For this purpose, we estimate Mincer type model that explains wage income as a function of education, experience and other employee- and job-specific characteristics. As a result, we come up with a clear picture of the earnings determinants and we formulate appropriate policy recommendations.
Keywords: earnings, low-pay, Mincer equation
Pages: 111-131 | Full text (PDF)

Clientelism and informality in Albania

Author: Islam JUSUFI
Abstract: Albania made revolutionary progress in its post-communist transition. Nevertheless, there have been setbacks, including the emergence and failure in the fight against organized crime. In this fight, the attitude of governments and of the public has often been political and clientelistic. In Albania, regional, cultural and political polarization has constantly existed. This polarization has also played a role in governments' responses to organized crime, which in turn has been important for the economic survival of communities and this has come to survive in informal forms. In this context, organized crime has come to be tolerated by people. This article analyses the fight against organized crime in Albania and how phenomena such as clientelism have affected this fight. Clientelism has emerged as the reason for the general absence of active opposition against criminality among the population in Albania. The article finds that people's own clientelistic and political views affect their decisions and attitudes towards organized crime. 
Keywords: informality, clientelism, criminality, organized crime, Albania
Pages: 133-150 | Full text (PDF)

Structure or agency? Explaining Armenia's foreign policy evolution

Authors: John H.S. ABERG, Aram TERZYAN
Abstract: The article scrutinizes Armenia's foreign policy trajectory since its independence. It applies a model of foreign policy analysis that takes into account structural, dispositional, and intentional dimensions and outlines a more dynamic structure-agency interplay. By  contrast to reductionist system-level explanations, the argument is that individual-level factors such as the perceptions and beliefs of Armenia's presidents are central to understanding why Armenia embarked on a foreign policy path where it became economically and militarily absorbed by Russia. The case study of Armenia's foreign policy serves as a plausibility probe that illustrates the relevance of individual-level factors in foreign policy decisionmaking. The article thus offers insights into the foreign policy of a small state.
Keywords: structure, agency, small state, Armenia, Russia, foreign policy, post-Soviet space 
Pages: 151-172 | Full text (PDF)


Sai Loo, Creative Working in the Knowledge Economy, New York: Routledge, 2017

Author: Sorin MAZILU
Pages: 173-176 | Full text (PDF)

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