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Eastern Journal of European Studies

e-ISSN: 2068-6633 | ISSN: 2068-651X

Volume 6  |  Issue 1  |  June 2015

Urban transition and sustainability. The case of the city of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Authors: Aleksandra DJURASOVIC, Joerg KNIELING
Abstract: The paper analyses the historical trajectory of development processes in the city of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), in order to offer insights into newly-shaping planning systems in South East Europe during the late phase of post-socialist transition. The paper argues that slow development of small transitional cities can suggest new models of sustainable urban development, but societal complexity makes transition more difficult and creates boundaries to a sustainable path development. The paper shows that sustainability has appeared as the new leitmotif of urban planning in the late post-socialist transformation of BiH, but due to many ongoing problems it is reduced to a vague set of fragmented development strategies more open for project-based development, while the country goes through a mainly neoliberal transformation. For BiH cities, locally-adapted sustainability seems to be the suitable development path.

Keywords
: urban planning, sustainability, transition, locally-adapted urbanism
Pages: 5-29 | Full text (PDF)
 

Ombudsman institutions in the candidate countries on the road to EU membership: a comparative view

Author: Vahap Atilla OGUSGIL
Abstract: The European Union has been attaching great importance to the values of democracy and human rights in its external policy, including to its relationship with candidate countries seeking membership in the Union. In accordance with the significance of the values stipulated by the Copenhagen political criteria, as well, it urges the countries in question, for example, to build or strengthen national oversight mechanisms that are tasked to promote the democratic governance of the state and protect human rights. This paper examines one of those oversight mechanisms - ombudsman institutions - in the candidate states conducting accession negotiations with the EU. It specifically scrutinises a fundamental characteristic for the effective functioning of these institutions - the jurisdiction and powers granted by their statutes. Relying on the findings to be noted, the paper also seeks an answer to the question of which ombudsman institution(s) score(s) better in terms of effectiveness and thus play(s) a more significant role in the improvement and consolidation of democracy and protection of human rights in its or their countries, and as a result, contribute(s) more to the fulfilment of Copenhagen political criteria during the EU accession processes..

Keywords
: European Union, EU candidate countries, Ombudsman institutions, jurisdiction and powers.
Pages: 31-48 | Full text (PDF)
 

Spatial differentiation and core-periphery structures in Romania

Author: Jozsef BENEDEK
Abstract: Our paper focuses on the spatial differentiation of economic development in Romania. We use spatial econometric methods (spatial autocorrelation) in order to determine the differentiation of the country in core regions and peripheries. The analysis is carried out on the regional spatial scale (NUTS 3 units or counties) and covers the period 2000-2011. The main results show a pronounced spatial polarization and spatial autocorrelation of economic development (proxied by GDP per capita) in Romania in some core regions (the capital Bucharest), while an extended periphery, comprising the eastern part of Transylvania, Moldova and northern Muntenia is lagging behind. The analysis of the multidimensional development (Human Development Index) has revealed the existence of some regional polarizing centres (Iași, Constanța), while the spatial configuration of cores and peripheries shows a different picture: beside the capital region, there is a second core area in the central part of Transylvania, while the eastern periphery is centred on the county Brăila.
Keywords: spatial economic structure, Romania, territorial autocorrelation, core and periphery
Pages: 49-61 | Full text (PDF)
 

Growth and convergence in the Central and East European countries towards EU (1992-2002)

Author: Aleksandar VASILEV
Abstract: The main focus of the paper is the growth process in transition countries in the period 1992-2002, by using the production function approach. The empirical cross-section study performed found that initial life expectancy and net savings speed up growth while death rate, inflation, and terms of trade hamper the increase in GDP. The paper also aims at providing policy implications, e.g. better spending in the legal system, healthcare and social security could help governments foster the restructuring process and decrease the effect of the mistakes made in the past.
Keywords: growth, transition countries, convergence, CEE countries, EU
Pages: 63-89  | Full text (PDF)
 

The peculiarities of trade specialization in creative industries in the Central and Eastern European countries

Author: Veronika CHALA
Abstract: Because of dynamic processes of creative economy development and resistance to the crisis of modern creative industries which occurs mainly in metropolitan areas, the interest in understanding these local processes as a factor of bringing international trade competitiveness and providing convergence among the countries where those metropolises are situated is of great value. The EU, and Central and East Europe (CEE) in particular, is not an exception. This paper reveals the most productive creative industries in the EU; fins out the impact of metropolises' creative activities development on countries' international specialization. Perspective products' and geographic patterns relating creative products' international specialization for CEE countries, especially for those which have recently signed association agreements with the EU (Moldova, Ukraine, and Georgia as an important East Neighbour for the EU) are grounded. Using inter- and intra-trading estimations, the positioning of CEE countries in the EU 28(+3) international specialization pattern is indicated. The product specialization of metropolises in CEE countries which may (or may not) contribute to further internationalization of creative industries in these countries has been revealed in the article.
Keywords: creative industries, metropolises, international specialization, inter-trading, intra-trading
Pages: 91-109 | Full text (PDF)
 

Demand for Romanian automotive products in the global value chain

Authors: Alina Petronela NEGREA, Valentin COJANU   
Abstract: The study aims to assess the position of the Romanian automotive sector in intermediate and final production stages along global value chains. Data are collected from WIOD global input-output matrix (2011). The inter-sectorial linkages are split into domestic and foreign use in order to distinguish between national and external demand for intermediate products. In order to emphasise intra and inter-industry linkages of the Romanian automobile industry, the consumption of transport equipment products as intermediate products is then analysed at the sector level (foreign and domestic), highlighting the main countries and sectors using these products as inputs. Although it remains crucially dependent on the timing and accuracy of GVC databases, this analysis brings the competitiveness debate into new territories.
Keywords: global value chains, automotive industry, vertical specialization, Romania
Pages: 111-122 | Full text (PDF)
 

Reporting on the 'ever closer union': narrative framing in national news medias and resistance to EU integration

Author: Andrew Anzur CLEMENT
Abstract: The implementation of the EU's integrative policies has resulted in relatively recent resistance to the integration process. Said popular politicization challenges further prospects for integration as it brings layers of identities to clash. A national identity persists within Member States, which views that boundaries should rest on the state level. This conflicts with the supranational identity implied by EU integration as it often necessitates the removal of national barriers. It is argued that this clash becomes activated through the manner in which news is reported in national medias. From this, a model is unpacked, positing the employment of narrative formats that frame events and issues with European aspects in national terms. Thus, media portrays national identity as conflicting legitimately with supranational integration, suggesting resistance to the EU project as the appropriate stance if the clash is to be resolved. Finally, possible application of the model is discussed.
Keywords: discourse, EU integration, identity conception, issue creation, news framing
Pages: 123-135 | Full text (PDF)

International development and the ecuation of power within the European Union

Author: Magda Simona SCUTARU
Abstract: Within the EU, we can talk about a high degree of power and this means that states have different capacities to reach prosperity, but they also have the capacity to help other states reach a similar degree of welfare. Development Assistance plays a very important role in the world, being offered to states which can not surpass economic, social or political difficulties. In order to reach a certain balance at the international level, between levels of development that states possess, a fundamental need occurs: states that are economically, socially and politically left behind must receive development assistance. The present work aims to analyse the degree to which the European Union contributes to international development. Both EU institutions and EU and OECD member states play fundamental roles on the world stage by granting funds to fragile and less developed states. Rethinking the third world might mean a restructuring of the political systems of states and of their economic systems, so that these countries become more developed and less dependent on other states. European institutions and assistance policies also need to change their way of regarding the matter of international development and of approaching the problem of poverty so that the needs of the third world states could be satisfied in an appropriate manner. Europe has the role of transformative power because it helps the third world states develop their economies and political systems so that they could satisfy the needs of their citizens. As a consequence, these economies are transforming. They are not autarchic systems, so when we are talking about transformation, we are talking about development.
Keywords: international development, EU, less developed countries, official development assistance (ODA)
Pages: 137-150 | Full text (PDF)
 

BOOK REVIEW:

Daniel Dăianu, Marele impas Ón Europa. Ce poate face Romania? [The great deadlock in Europe. What can Romania do?], Polirom, 2014

Author: Ion POHOATA
Pages: 151-154 | Full text (PDF)
 
 
 
 

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