Eastern Journal of European Studies

e-ISSN: 2068-6633 | ISSN: 2068-651X

Volume 12  |  Special Issue |  August 2021

Special Issue: Resilience in the Space-Economy - in search of the X factor

Guest editors: Karima KOURTIT, Peter NIJKAMP

Editorial: Resilience in the Space-Economy - in search of the X factor 

Authors: Karima KOURTIT, Peter NIJKAMP 
The 'X Factor' is a British reality show - broadcasted all over the world - in which a heterogeneous set of contestants showcase their musical talent so as to obtain the winning bid from a jury. The X factor refers to the critical condition that has the most significant influence on the final result. This popular television series on the X factor documents in an original way how several competing candidates in a performance contest steal the show. It is not only the professionality, originality or beauty which matters, but also many other - often immeasurable or invisible - factors, such as personality or motivation which play a role. The X factor is a complex determinant of a dynamic process or competition to win a tournament. . 

Pages: 5-11 | Full text (PDF)


How well do we know the issue of resilience? Literary research of current levels of knowledge 

Authors: Jana OSTARKOVA, Michaela STANICKOVA 
Abstract: Economies have always been sensitive to certain types of shocks in the past. This article deals with the growing importance of resilience and the development of this concept connected with regional development and emphasises its significance for the 4.0 generation and smart specialisation. In addition to the 4thIndustrial Revolution, it is necessary to mention the current topic, which is directly related to the concept of resilience and is, to some extent, behind its revival, i.e., COVID-19. Due to the COVID-19 crisis, the resilience topic is gaining prominence, and its importance is growing. The COVID-19 crisis shows how it has reduced the resilience of key systems to shocks and allowed failures to cascade from one system to others. A systemic approach based on resilience must be proposed to prepare socio-economic systems for future shocks. The European Union is no exception and it must, therefore, accept strategies oriented on resilience.
Keywords: COVID-19, crisis, development, EU, industrial revolution, literary research, resilience, smart specialisation,
Pages: 12-42 | Full text (PDF)


Regional innovation strategy for resilience and transformative industrial path development: evolutionary theoretical perspectives on innovation policy 

Authors: Bjorn T. ASHEIM, Sverre J. HERSTAD
Abstract: Many countries in the developed world are currently experiencing low rates of economic growth, which is furthermore regionally and socially unequal. This increasing inequality seems to have deepened during the Corona crisis. When economic policies are discussed in these demanding times, the strategic question remains whether the best strategy is to seek to bounce back to the 'old normal', or to use this critical time as a conjuncture to departure on a development path to a 'new normal' that is more innovative, sustainable, and inclusive. In light of this, the main aim of this paper is to look for new perspectives on theory and policy with important implications for promoting the most radical forms of industrial path development, viz. path diversification based on unrelated knowledge combinations and new path creation, securing the adaptability of an economy to become more resilient. 
Keywords: regional innovation policy, resilience, transformative path development, evolutionary theory,   
Pages: 43-75 | Full text (PDF)


Prosilience trajectories of phoenix regions: a narrative on intelligent transformation of old mining areas

Author: Patricio AROCA, Karima KOURTIT, Peter NIJKAMP, Roger STOUGH
Abstract: This paper departs from the regional resilience concept - as part of a broad strand of literature on non-linear dynamic systems in a space-economy - and introduces the notion of prosilience to highlight the policy challenge of developing radically new and innovative strategies for regions in decline. The mining industry will be used as an illustrative case. The notion of phoenix regions is put forward to argue that an external disruption or shock in an established industrial sector in a region necessitates unconventional survival strategies oriented towards entirely new market demands and based on totally different product packages. Ansoff's model on product diversification in competitive markets forms an inspiration source for the Schumpeterian 'creative destruction' proposition advocated in this study. An illustrative case study is concisely described in the present paper, viz. the South-Limburg coal mining region in the Southern part of the Netherlands. Smart prosilience trajectories supported in particular by evidence-based decision support tools are sketched for such depressed regions, based on the so-called Pentagon intervention model. The paper is concluded with some general policy lessons for an intelligent transformation of regions in decline.
Keywords: resilience, prosilience, phoenix regions, intelligent transformation, mining areas, Ansoff model, creative destruction, sustainable development,
Pages: 76-99 | Full text (PDF)


What strengthens resilience in public administration institutions?

Authors: Alina Georgiana PROFIROIU, Corina-Cristiana NASTACĂ  
Abstract: Public administration has to cope with the constant changes which affect today's society and continue to ensure citizens' well-being. Consequently, public institutions should strengthen their capacity to manage the unforeseen, namely, to become resilient to different types of shocks. In this context, the present research aims to investigate the concept of resilience, trying to establish the most important drivers of institutional resilience. The main objective is to propose a conceptual framework based on a meta-analysis of existing studies regarding resilience which can be used for defining and measuring the capacity factors that might influence the institutional resilience of public administration. The framework will be further used in future research. It will be applied to public institutions, at different administrative levels to reveal how prepared for future shocks they are and to find out new ways of strengthening their resilience. From the methodological point of view, an exploratory study was conducted by reviewing the literature in this field in order to establish the main drivers that might influence and strengthen institutional resilience. As a result, we proposed a conceptual framework that includes the main capacity factors of institutional resilience and a set of quantitative and qualitative indicators defining these drivers.   
Keywords: institutional resilience, public institutions, conceptual framework,
Pages: 100-125 | Full text (PDF)


The effects of COVID-19 on EU federalism 

Author: Juan Carlos MARTIN, Concepcion ROMAN
Abstract: This article analyses how COVID-19 is affecting the EU federalism position in 21 Member States. The analysis is based on an ordered probit econometric model that explains the citizens' support to a major involvement of the EU institutions to control the corona virus pandemic. The dataset is the product of a survey administered to 21804 European citizens about a number of issues about the pandemic in 21 EU countries. The empirical analysis provides conclusive evidence on the determinants that affect the individual shift position of European citizens to a major involvement of the European institutions in the control of the pandemic. Our results show that Portuguese, Greeks, Bulgarians, Italians and Spaniards and males are those more in favour of the EU federalist solution to control the COVID-19 crisis. Years of education and social class are among the variables that do not have any significant effect. Meanwhile, the political support to the national government, the priority given to health vs. economy and, being in favour of limiting individual rights to control the pandemic seem to have a positive effect on EU federalism. Moreover, concerns about being infected by the pandemic, need of the help of others, altruism (helping others), economic loss, and social interaction with others also play a determinant role. Thus, the article contributes to the debate of the attitudes and behaviour that affect the individual position of the citizens who want a shift in authority from the national governments to the federal EU as a link to create more resilient regions during COVID-19. .
Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, ordered probit, micro-econometric analysis, marginal effects, EU federalism, resilience ,
Pages: 126-148 | Full text (PDF)


A multilevel analysis of the contextual effects in distance education outcomes during COVID-19

Author: Umut TURK
Abstract: The COVID-19 outbreak has forced countries to take extensive measures aimed at minimizing human contact. In this crisis period, distance education has played a crucial role in ensuring continuous learning. However, not all locations have had the same maturity level regarding infrastructure availability, and the city-level heterogeneity in socioeconomic structures might have impeded equal access to distance education. This paper focuses on the contextual dimension of distance education by a comparative approach between in-person and distance education outcomes in Turkey. By a multilevel modelling approach, student outcomes are examined against a set of student-level and city-level determinants of academic success during the COVID-19 period compared to the same academic semester in the previous year.  The findings support previous studies, discussing the long-term contextual effects on student outcomes and show that the digital divide between the rural and urban areas and income inequality are the main drivers of city-level variation in students' success during the pandemic.
Keywords: distance education, multilevel models, city-effects, Turkey,
Pages: 149-169 | Full text (PDF)


Urban resilience: an instrument to decode the post-socialist socio-economic and spatial transformations of cities from Central and Eastern Europe 

Authors: Alexandra SANDU, Alexandru BANICA, Ionel MUNTELE
Abstract: A widely used concept, urban resilience, cannot remain a metaphor or just a theoretical view on the ability of cities to overcome perturbations, but it also needs to be operationalized and to become a useful tool in deciphering the complex and very dynamic urban realities. The present study investigates the resilience of 76 selected cities from Central and Eastern Europe from the point of view of socio-economic indicators (socio-economic resilience), as well as from the point of view of morphological and functional indicators (spatial resilience). The methodology is quantitative, based on statistical analyses which link the socio-economic evolution of the cities to the spatial one in order to observe the disturbances. The results show us a territory of Central and Eastern Europe at several speeds. The differences exist because of a differentiated structural change that took place after the collapse of communism (depending on the proximity or distance to the border with Western Europe), but also linked to the existence of different socio-economic resources (Western cities vs Eastern cities of Poland, Romania, Bulgaria), based on their different history and the trajectory taken since the fall of communism.   
Keywords: urban resilience, urban functions, adaptive cycle, post-socialist city, Central and Eastern Europe,
Pages: 170-195 | Full text (PDF)


Spatial interactions of employment in European labour markets

Authors: Laura Helena KIVI, Tiiu PAAS
Abstract: The paper investigates spatial interactions in European labour markets putting emphasis on the resilience of possible interactions during the period 2004-2018. The study is conducted based on employment data of the Eurostat NUTS 2 level regions by using several types of spatial econometric models and following theoretical assumptions that employment rate in one region is affected by employment rate changes and unobserved shocks in other regions. Spatial interactions in employment rates have slightly risen since the Eastern enlargement of the European Union in 2004 and continued to increase during the previous financial crisis. Since 2010, spatial dependence has been comparatively stable, having a slight tendency to decrease during the recent years. The results indicate that spatial interactions of regional labour markets are resilient to economic downturns, thus confirming the importance of close coordination between regions while also developing labour market and regional policy measures during different types of crises. 
Keywords: regional labour markets, spatial effects, spatial econometrics, resilience, regional cooperation ,
Pages: 196-211 | Full text (PDF)


Resilience of the European Union as a determinant of its post-pandemic development

Author: Mark ENTIN, Dmitriy GALUSHKO
Abstract: The article examines the category of resilience in the modern discourse of the European Union, its essence and characteristic features. The aim of the paper is to chart the complex process of the belated response of Brussels to the pandemic in the light of the concept of resilience of the Union, examining in detail the reasons for taken measures and its consequences for its future development, defining future scenarios. On the basis of the analysis, it is concluded that in modern conditions, resilience from an external category has gradually become internal for the EU. Moreover, this is relevant for the EU development in the context of today's COVID-19 pandemic and the challenges to European unity that it has caused. The authors review the key measures taken by EU institutions and bodies to combat the pandemic and provide economic assistance to member states to overcome its negative consequences. Based on the analysis carried out, three scenarios for the further development of the EU are proposed, and an opinion is expressed on the need to further ensure the resilience of the Union itself. Since, in any case, the pandemic has demonstrated that the era of nation states in the region is finally a thing of the past, and Europe needs much greater unity and cohesion.     
Keywords: resilience, pandemic, COVID-19, European Union, European integration, development,
Pages: 212-230 | Full text (PDF)


Business recovery in the European Union after the global financial crisis: lessons for the Coronavirus pandemic

Authors: Consuela-Elena POPESCU, Alexandra HOROBET, Georgiana VRINCEANU, Lucian BELASCU
Abstract: The present paper undertakes an analysis of the manufacturing sector performance in the European Union after the 2007-2009 Global financial crisis, with the aim of discovering the lessons to be learned for the post-pandemic world. We employ aggregate data at industry level and use a methodology based on mean difference tests and two-samples Kolmogorov-Smirnoff tests. We find a varied panorama of industry recovery in EU after the 2007-2009 crisis, albeit with different paces depending on size, ownership, and level of technological intensity. There is evidence of a higher flexibility of smaller companies, reflected mostly in productivity gains, and a focus of larger businesses on profitability, supported by their size. Moreover, better personnel cost management has led to a drop in the importance of personnel costs in turnover. Our results are valuable for businesses that needed to survive during the pandemics, as they show that higher business flexibility might support a quicker recovery.  
Keywords: crisis, recovery, manufacturing, lessons, coronavirus,
Pages: 231-249 | Full text (PDF)


Building resilience beyond the EU's eastern borders. EU actorness and societal perceptions in Ukraine and Republic of Moldova

Authors: Loredana Maria SIMIONOV, Gabriela Carmen PASCARIU, Nadiia BUREIKO
Abstract: The resilience approach as EU's newfound paradigm places societies and communities at the heart of its interactions with external partners, and especially with its immediate neighbours. As such, in order to enhance its resilience and that of its neighbours, the EU has turned its attention from state to society, from a general top-down to a bottom-up approach. The success of this approach depends, to a certain extent, on the local trust in the EU's performance as a transformative actor. The present paper inquires how EU's actorness is being perceived beyond its eastern borders (mainly in the border regions of Ukraine and Republic of Moldova) and explores the implications for building a more resilient society in the Eastern neighbourhood. We argue that in spite of the EU's attempts to enhance its actorness in the region, or its incentives to bring about reforms and promote European values, the positive citizens' perceptions and the overall awareness of the EU still has a modest impact; this is further limiting EU's capacity to act towards building a 'stronger and more resilient society'.
Keywords: EU actorness, resilience, perceptions, society, Ukraine, Moldova ,
Pages: 250-272 | Full text (PDF)


Value management models for financial resilience estimations. A case of selected industrial companies in the Republic of Moldova 

Authors: Iurie BESLIU , Oleg PETELCA, Veronica GARBUZ
Abstract: The object of the research is the financial resilience mechanism of the company focused on value management indicators. The aspect of financial resilience has been combined with enterprise value management in a crisis situation. The value management system was researched using the data from the financial reports of 32 joint-stock companies, the most representative for the industrial sector of the Republic of Moldova. Three models of financial resilience of the enterprise based on value management were applied: the operative value management model, the strategic value management model, and the econometric model. The results of the research showed the existence of a positive influence of the balance sheet value of equity and net residual profit on the value of the enterprise. The financial resilience based on the enterprise value determined according to the market capitalization can be achieved by the balance sheet value of equity and residual profit.    
Keywords: resilience, financial resilience, resilience model, value management, crisis situation,
Pages: 273-297 | Full text (PDF)


Maria Alina Asavei: Art, Religion and Resistance in (Post-) Communist Romania: Nostalgia for Paradise Lost

Author: Alexandru STANESCU
Pages: 298 -232  | Full text (PDF)


EJESİ Centre for European Studies - Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iași 2010 |