Eastern Journal of European Studies

e-ISSN: 2068-6633 | ISSN: 2068-651X

Volume 5  |  Issue 2  |  December 2014

Thematic issue: Europe in transnational movements       

Guest editors: Yves DENECHERE and Rodica Milena ZAHARIA  

Editorial: Eastern Europe - A new field of humanitarian history

Author: Yves DENECHERE
Abstract: Defining "humanitarian" is by no means a simple endeavour: that is a sign of the considerable polysemy of the term, as well as of the debates that animate it. "Humanitarian" refers to a form of action (humanitarian action), work (humanitarian work), commitment (humanitarian commitment) for the benefit of people in need who require care, food, shelter; natural disasters, wars, economic crises generate deficiencies and violations of human dignity (imprisonment, abuse, torture). Philosophical and ideological debates, but also highly pragmatic considerations, have contributed to the emergence of humanitarian policies and of a global humanitarian space. Some even suggest a `humanitarian government`, meaning the deployment of moral sentiments in contemporary policies, with the advent of a genuine "humanitarian reason".

: humaniatarian, Estern Europe, humanitarian government
Pages: 5-11 | Full text (PDF)

A hand in salvation or cool calculation? The role of the US humanitarian aid in shaping the American policy towards Poland (1956 -1965)

Author: Maciej STANECKI
Abstract: The article will present the role of the humanitarian aid in the process of creating the US foreign policy. The study will examine two interesting case studies: the Polish Medical Aid Project and the creation of the American Research Hospital for Children in Poland. The work will show the most important aspects of the planning and implementation of those initiatives. This approach will be aimed at answering the title question and will try to define the extent to which the humanitarian aid offered to Poland within a certain period was a political calculation. The final analysis of the congressional hearings conducted in 1962 presents and confirms the complexity of the process of helping the "Captive Nations" in Central Eastern Europe.

: American - Polish relations, humanitarian aid, psychological warfare, People-to-People diplomacy, Operations Coordinating Board, Cooperative for American Remittances Everywhere
Pages: 13-32 | Full text (PDF)

Collecting money at a global level. The UN fundraising campaign for the 1956 Hungarian refugees

Author: Gusztav D. KECSKES
Abstract: The present study examines the role that the UN played in providing the financial means for the international reception of the 1956 Hungarian refugees. According to the author's conclusions, through the coordination of money-raising efforts, authorised by international law (that is, by the UN General Assembly's decisions) and the professional and trustworthy documentation of humanitarian needs and activities, the institutional network of the UN contributed considerably to the formation and practical implementation of Western governments' international humanitarian action aimed at solving the crisis of the 1956 Hungarian refugees. This study is based on documents in the UN archives (New York, Geneva), the Swedish National Library (Stockholm), the UNHCR Archives, the Archives of the International Committee of the Red Cross, (Geneva) and the NATO Archives (Brussels), and in the Diplomatic Archives Center (La Courneuve, Nantes), Diplomatic Archive (Brussels) and the Hungarian National Archives (Budapest).
Keywords: United Nations, UNHCR, humanitarian action, refugee, 1956, Hungarian
Pages: 33-60 | Full text (PDF)

Local practices of humanitarian aid: Pharmaciens sans frontieres Anjou in Romania during the 1990s

Authors: Beatrice SCUTARU
Abstract: The fall of the communist regime caused a massive flow of humanitarian aid to Romania, from all over the world. Pharmaciens sans frontieres (PSF) Anjou, a departmental branch of PSF France, was one of them. After retrieving and sorting unused medication for three years, its members decided to take matters into their own hands and go to Romania. This also led to the development of other types of projects, such as internships and inter-university collaboration. In this article I argue that, at a local level, actions are highly influenced by individual stakeholders. Therefore, this study aims to better understand and illustrate the role of everyday practices in the evolution of humanitarian aid to Romania during the 1990s. The article will also question the purpose and utility of these person-to-person contacts.

: Pharmaciens sans frontieres, Romania, Maine-et-Loire, humanitarian aid, internships, interpersonal relations
Pages: 61-75  | Full text (PDF)

Humanitarian aid and political aims in Eastern Ukraine: Russian involvement and European response

Author: Andrei SCRINIC
Abstract: Recent events in Ukraine revealed several humanitarian issues against the background of strong pressures from Russian Federation, in its attempt to block Ukraine's accession to the European Union (EU). This article examines how the UE, as a normative force, responds to the humanitarian crisis in Eastern Ukraine and to Russian moves to support the separatist forces, under the guise of humanitarian aid. The Russian convoys that reached the Donbas region have repeatedly breached international legislation in the humanitarian field, as documented by both Ukrainian authorities and international missions in the disputed regions. Moscow's "humanitarian" vision appears to be a part of a wider attempt to impose the Eurasian project in its near abroad, alongside information war and outright military support for anti-government forces.
Keywords: European Union, Russia, humanitarian aid, Ukraine crisis, Donbas conflict
Pages: 77-88 | Full text (PDF)

Editorial: The European Union: internal coherence, external relevance

Author: Rodica Milena ZAHARIA
Abstract: In the present changing world, the EU is active on two major battlefields: the internal one, where the EU has to define the future of its internal construction; and the external arena, where the EU has to establish what role it must play and how to do it with a stronger voice. Both challenges are important and mutually reinforcing. The EU is strong outside as long as it is solid inside; it is a model for others as long as it is attractive for its members.
Keywords: European Union, external relevance
Pages: 89-91 | Full text (PDF)

Influential internal and external factors in German policy towards Turkey's EU membership: more than 'privileged partnership'; less than full membership?

Author: Selcen ONER
Abstract: This article focuses on the internal and external factors that influence Germany's policy concerning Turkey's EU membership bid. Firstly, it explains the theoretical framework and historical background of Germany's policies regarding Turkey's EU membership. Secondly, it analyses the role of internal and external factors related to the EU as well as external factors related to Turkey. The internal factors include the integration problems of Turkish immigrants and the rise of Islamophobia in Europe. Their influence on the role of the German public opinion is analysed. Then, the perceptions of Germany's political elites and civil society are discussed, based on face-to-face, in-depth interviews conducted by the author with representatives of several politicians from different political parties in the German federal parliament. Additional interviews were conducted with representatives of several foundations and business organisations in Berlin and one German-Turkish business organisation in Istanbul. Finally, the article argues that Germany has been trying to develop a policy which is in between the idea of a 'privileged partnership' and the full membership of Turkey and tries to evaluate the reasons behind that.
Keywords: Germany, Turkey, European Union, privileged partnership, Turkish community
Pages: 93-116 | Full text (PDF)

How people perceive immigrants' role in their country's life: a comparative study of Estonia and Russia

Authors: Tiiu PAAS, Olga DEMIDOVA
Abstract: The paper focuses on a comparative analysis of people's attitudes towards immigrants' role in several aspects of countries' life depending on the individual's socio-demographic and economic characteristics in Estonia and Russia. The empirical part of the paper relies on the European Social Survey (ESS) fifth round database. The results of the study show that the Estonian people's attitudes towards immigrants are, on the average, better in all aspects of the country's life - economy, culture and the country as a living place, compared to the Russian one. Both economic and non-economic factors explain the observed variation of individuals' opinions regarding the role of immigrants in a country's life. Ethnic minorities, religious people and people with higher income are more tolerant to immigrants in both countries. Socio-demographic characteristics such as age, gender and education are valid determinants of people's attitudes towards immigrants only in Estonia. Highly educated people have more positive attitudes towards immigrants compared to less educated people in Estonia but not in Russia. The results of the analysis therefore highlight the necessity to take different factors into account for the design of the migration and integration policies in the countries with ethnically diverse population.
Keywords: attitudes towards immigrants, European Social Survey, comparative analysis, Estonia, Russia
Pages: 117-138 | Full text (PDF)

U.S. policy toward European integration, 1969 - 1974: a continuation

Author: Nguyen Thi Thuy HANG
Abstract: This paper aims to argue that the Nixon administration's policy to Western Europe from 1969 to 1974 was a continuation of the U.S. traditional support and promotion of European integration. It argues that despite its concentration on the detente with the Soviet Union and opening to China, the Nixon administration still attached importance to its relations with Western Europe and actively supported the European attempts to enlarge the European Economic Community (the EEC). Henceforth, the paper will begin with an examination of the Nixon administration's continued commitment to physically defend Western European and to strengthen the Atlantic alliance before looking at how active the United States was in supporting the United Kingdom (the UK) to become a member of the European Community (the EC). Then, it will highlight the necessity of the U.S. - EC alliance in the international system. It will be concluded that, though there were conflicts between the two sides of the Atlantic Ocean, the Nixon administration remained committed to promoting the integrative process in Western Europe.
Keywords: the European Economic Community, the Nixon administration, European integration
Pages: 139-158 | Full text (PDF)

U.S. chemical policy under review: how much Europeanisation

Author: Ondrej FILIPEC
Abstract: The European Union chemical regulation REACH entered into force in 2007. The most ambitious regulations on chemicals in the World will soon become a source of inspiration for other countries to review their own national regulations on chemicals. This is also the case of the USA where the failure of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 to provide a high level of protection for human health and environment contributed to a general consensus for reform. Several reform proposals were considered and discussed in both chambers of Congress, reflecting to various degrees some principles of the European REACH. This article deals with the US chemical policy reform in the context of the European experience with REACH, assessing whether the US chemical policy review is subject to Europeanisation or whether the influence of REACH on the US reform is merely superficial.
Keywords: EU, USA, chemical regulation, REACH, TSCA reform
Pages: 159-180 | Full text (PDF)


Sebastien Farre, Colis de guerre. Secours alimentaire et organisations humanitaires (1914-1947), Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2014

Author: Yves DENECHERE
Pages: 181-183 | Full text (PDF)


Michael Barnett and Janice Gross Stein (eds.), Sacred aid: faith and humanitarianism, Oxford University Press, 2012

Author: Larysa KOVRYK-TOKAR
Pages: 185-190 | Full text (PDF)

EJESİ Centre for European Studies - Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iași 2010 |