Eastern Journal of European Studies

e-ISSN: 2068-6633 | ISSN: 2068-651X

Volume 4  |  Issue 2  |  December 2013

Thematic issue: The EU's Eastern Neighbourhood 

Editorial: What is the role of Europe in the 21st century?

Author: Erhard BUSEK
Abstract: Unquestionably, the 20th century was a "European century", but there are doubts whether the 21st century is a European one or not! This depends on Europe itself and the capacity to formulate its role. Obviously, we are in a new stage of Europe. History knows Europe in different stages. It makes no sense to define all periods, but for the influence of the past you may mention some of these on contemporary Europe.

Keywords: European Union, European century
Pages: 5-10 | Full text (PDF)

Evaluating the role of partnership in the European Neighbourhood Policy: the Eastern neighbourhood

Author: Elena A. KOROSTELEVA
Abstract: After recent enlargements, the EU sought to develop a new strategy that would incentivise rather than compel, in the absence of a membership prospect, the neighbours for reform. The concept of partnership was placed on the agenda as a supplementary tool of EU governance to offset negative externalities of convergence and compliance. However, it has taken the EU three conceptual iterations to finally identify a suitable frame for engagement. This paper posits that the EU is currently at a critical juncture observing an important shift in its modus operandi - away from hierarchical coordination and control, to more networked relations of self-censorship and ownership, designed to operate through a complex matrix of grass-root initiatives to penetrate all levels of society. To make it an effective model for the future external relations, the EU still requires two important elements - institutionalisation of the new governance structure, and learning about 'the other', to mobilise partners' support for reciprocal and sustainable cooperation.

: European Union, European Neighbourhood Policy, Eastern Partnership
Pages: 11-36 | Full text (PDF)

Some considerations on the intergovernmental dimension of the European Neighbourhood Policy

Author: Oana Mihaela MOCANU
Abstract: This paper aims to shed some light on the implications of the intergovernmental approach on the inception and evolution of the EU's Neighbourhood Policy. Although initially projected as a new community policy based on a called-for common, unitary vision on the neighbours, the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) was (and still is) directly influenced by the interests and particular actions of several EU member states. Since its conception and through its developing initiatives, especially in the Eastern part (i.e. the Eastern Partnership), the role of national interests has been high in articulating the policy. Analysts often criticize the impetuous national behaviour that surpasses the community objectives in shaping the policy. The success or failure of the ENP depends not only on the capacity of the member states to put the Union's interest above all, but also on the capability of the ENP partner states to profit from the 'privileged relations' offered, in the absence of the ultimate incentive - the accession perspective. For the policy to succeed, the EU has to do more than theoretically transfer its values and norms onto its partners. A policy based on differentiation, according to specific country progress would be the best solution for the EU neighbouring area.
Keywords: EU diplomacy, cooperation, EU neighbourhood, Eastern Partnership, conditionality, intergovernmental factor, differentiation
Pages: 37-49 | Full text (PDF)

Political economy aspects of Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreements

Authors: Panagiota MANOLI
Abstract: Trade agreements are usually shaped by political considerations rather than pure welfare estimations. This article aims at discussing the political economy aspects of Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreements offered by the European Union to its Eastern partners. It is argued that although the DCFTAs concern trade liberalization and remain a technically complicated elite-driven process, they are widely perceived by engaged partners and beyond as primary evidence of joining the European economic integration project which will fundamentally affect the distribution of wealth and power in Eastern neighbourhood redesigning its political economy map. Using trade jargon, these agreements have served geopolitical goals rather than economic interests.
Keywords: trade, Eastern Partnership, Russia, European neighbourhood, DCFTA
Pages: 51-73  | Full text (PDF)

Intervention priorities for economic development in the crossborder area Romania-Ukraine-Republic of Moldova - A'WOT analysis approach

Authors: Marcela SLUSARCIUC, Gabriela PRELIPCEAN
Abstract: The aim of the paper is to establish the future intervention priorities in building a new programme that would target the economic development in the research area. The used methodology included an adapted A'WOT analysis - an initial SWOT analysis and a prioritization of the items through an expert questionnaire. In the present paper we analyze the experts' opinions and the areas where intervention is needed for the optimum strategies for the 2014-2020 financial frame. These should rely on the strengths in the Guidelines for Applicants, the rules for projects implementation and the institutional system, it should consider changes on the weak points concerning the programme objectives, the Guidelines for Applicants and the beneficiaries consultations, it should make use of opportunities coming from the crossborder status, European Union frame and economic opportunities and overcome the differences coming from crossborder status, membership of two different supranational structures and the economic gaps.
Keywords: crossborder cooperation, economic development, A'WOT analysis, SWOT analysis, Joint Operational Program Romania-Ukraine-Republic of Moldova
Pages: 75-94  | Full text (PDF)

The socialization potential of the Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum

Abstract: This article assesses socialization in the Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum, an institutionalized civil society cooperation consisting of non-governmental organizations from the European Union and the Eastern Partnership countries: Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The article argues that uniting the literature on socialization and on Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum adds considerably to scholarly knowledge about the role of the institutionalized civil society in the world. The analysis of the activities of the Civil Society Forum shows that the conditions for socialization are largely fulfilled. We conclude that the organisation and functioning of the Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum not only provides a passive framework for transmitting European values and norms, but also results in a middle degree of socialization between civil society organizations of the European Union and the Eastern Partnership countries. There is a large degree of internalization of European Union-sponsored norms and values among the participants of the Civil Society Forum: they fervently promote and defend such norms and values. The little-politicized environment in which discussions take place also allows civil society organisations to make ambitious statements, often more straightforward than political representatives (can) make.
Keywords: Eastern Partnership, Civil Society Forum
Pages: 95-110 | Full text (PDF)

Higher education as soft power in the Eastern Partnership: the case of Belarus

Author: Giles POLGLASE
Abstract: The use of higher education (HE) as 'soft power' has a long history in Europe. In the contemporary policy framework, the European Union (EU) has utilised the transformative power of HE in the Eastern Partnership (EaP) via initiatives such as Erasmus Mundus, Marie Curie and Tempus to create active teaching and research partnerships with non-member states; and by doing so, it reiterates the EU's commitment to the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) and the Bologna Process. Although laudable, these polices have had a limited effect in Belarus which has remained a laggard in its engagement with EHEA. Belarus remains a non-signatory to the Bologna Process, has limited introduction of the Bologna structure and has only partially engaged in the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS). Student mobility from Belarus within the EHEA is poor and non-governmental HE initiatives, such as the European Humanities University (EHU), have succumbed to internal politics resulting in the formation of a 'university in exile'. This paper explores how effective EU HE policies have been in Belarus and offers examples of initiatives with the potential to develop HE as a transformative power in the country.
Keywords: Eastern Partnership, European higher education, Bologna process, Belarus
Pages: 111-121 | Full text (PDF)

After Vilnius: the European Union's smart power and the Eastern Neighbourhood

Author: Lucian-Dumitru DIRDALA
Abstract: The concept of "smart power" is relevant for the analysis of European Union's external action, insofar as the relations with other parties include conditionality and payments. The Eastern Partnership falls in that category, and the recent developments associated with the 2013 Vilnius Summit can be understood in relation with the European Union's policies toward the Eastern neighbourhood. The article suggests that a better combination of hard power and soft power strategies is needed, in order to promote European values and interests in the region.
Keywords: Eastern Partnership, Vilnius Summit, Eastern Neighbourhood
Pages: 123-136 | Full text (PDF)


Elena A. Korosteleva, The European Union and its Eastern Neighbours: towards a more ambitious partnership? 

Author: Teodor Lucian MOGA
Pages: 137-140 | Full text (PDF)


Jürgen Habermas, The crisis of the European Union: a response 

Author: Lucian-Dumitru DIRDALA
Pages: 141-143 | Full text (PDF)

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